To obtain this increased accuracy, however, the interest rate must be recalculated every month of the accounting period; these extra calculations are a disadvantage of the effective interest rate. If an investor uses the simpler straight-line method when the effective interest rate method is used, the amortization of the bond premium to calculate interest, then the amount charged off each month does not vary; it is the same amount each month. When a discounted bond is sold, the amount of the bond's discount must be amortized to interest expense over the life of the bond.

- If this bond then sold for $1,200, its effective interest rate would sink to 5%.
- Understanding amortizable bond premium is crucial in wealth management, as it significantly influences bond yields, tax implications, and overall investment strategies.
- The bond's carrying value in Column 6 is thus increased by $508, from $92,976 to $93,484.
- But the company is only paying interest on $100,000—not on the full amount received.
- The theoretically preferable approach to recording amortization is the effective-interest method.

In our example, there is no accrued interest at the issue date of the bonds and at the end of each accounting year because the bonds pay interest on June 30 and December 31. The entries for 2022, including the entry to record the bond issuance, are shown next. To calculate the amortizable bond premium using the constant yield method, multiply the bond's adjusted cost basis by its effective interest rate and subtract the annual interest payment.

## Amortizing Bond Premium with the Effective Interest Rate Method

Under IFRS, bonds are reported as a liability on the balance sheet at the amount of the sales proceeds net of issuance costs. Under US GAAP, they are reported at the amount of the sales proceeds, ignoring any bond issuance costs. Figure 13.10 illustrates the relationship between rates whenever a premium or discount is created at bond issuance. Figure 13.7 shows an amortization table for this $10,000 loan, over five years at 12% annual interest.

The effective interest rate calculation reflects actual interest earned or paid over a specified timeframe. It is considered preferable to the straight-line method of figuring premiums or discounts as they apply to bond issues because it is a more accurate statement of interest from the beginning to the end of a chosen accounting period (the amortization period). On a period-by-period basis, accountants regard the effective interest method as far more accurate for calculating the impact of an investment on a company's bottom line.

## Effective Interest Rate to Maturity

As the table shows, the interest for each period is $6,702 and the total over the 10 periods is $67,024 under the straight-line method. Due to the straight-line method's conceptual problem, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) requires the use of the effective interest method unless there are no material differences between the two. An interest-bearing asset also has a higher effective interest rate as more compounding occurs. For example, an asset that compounds interest yearly has a lower effective rate than an asset that compounds monthly.

If a bond is issued at face value, the amount of periodic interest expense will be the same as the amount of periodic interest payments to bondholders. If the bond is issued at a premium or discount, the premium or discount is amortized systematically over the life of the bonds as a component of interest expense. We can use an amortization table, or schedule, prepared using Microsoft Excel or other financial software, to show the loan balance for the duration of the loan. An amortization table calculates the allocation of interest and principal for each payment and is used by accountants to make journal entries. When a consumer borrows money, she can expect to not only repay the amount borrowed, but also to pay interest on the amount borrowed.

## Calculation of Amortizable Bond Premiums

For each period, the interest expense in Column 2 is the semiannual yield rate at the time of issue, 5%, multiplied by the carrying value of the bonds at the beginning of the period. The information for the journal entry to record the semiannual interest expense can be drawn directly from the amortization schedule. The difference between the required cash interest payment of $6,000 in Column 3 ($100,000 x 6%) and the effective interest expense of $6,508 is the required discount amortization of $508 in Column 4. In the next interest period, this rate falls to 7.15% because the interest expense for the period remains at $6,702. However, as shown in our article covering bonds issued at a discount, the carrying value of the bonds has increased to $93,678. When you use the effective interest method, the carrying value of the bonds is always equal to the present value of the future cash outflow at each amortization date.

This means that as a bond's book value increases, the amount of interest expense will increase. The updated bond cost basis is calculated by subtracting the annual bond premium amortization from the initial cost basis. This updated cost basis is then used to calculate the amortization for the following year. DebtBook’s new Premium/Discount Amortization feature gives clients the ability to track their amortization of original issuance premium/discount (“OIP” or “OID”) within their DebtBook profile. The amount of amortization is the difference between the cash paid for interest and the calculated amount of bond interest expense, and at the end of the bond carrying period, the unamortized discount or premium would be zero.